Four European project partner cities serve as testing grounds for pilot trials of the tools and methodologies developed by the research partners and ensure a much-needed co-creation and tailoring of the project outputs. These core cities, also referred to as “Tier 1 cities” are Paris, Manchester, Bratislava and Bilbao, and they have been selected for their diversity geographically, for climate diversity, variety in terms of adaptation progress and for their variety in terms of area, industry and population. This variety will allow the project to develop a set of tools and methodologies that is applicable in different local contexts and supports the creation of a standardised approach to fostering climate adaptation and building resilience.  


Bilbao, the capital of Biscay in northern Spain’s Basque Country, is a port city with an urban population of 346,000, whose coastal location and maritime climate could lead to significant climate change impacts. Bilbao’s local government is starting to show its support for climate change adaptation, but has not formalised its political commitment, and Bilbao does not yet have a standalone adaptation and critical infrastructure protection strategy. 

Bilbao City Assessment Report


Slovakia’s capital and largest city with over 417,000 inhabitants and a total area of 367.9 km2 lies on the River Danube and is bordered by Austria and Hungary. Strong commitment to climate change adaptation at a local governmental level has led to a number of strategies and action plans, among other steps the city is taking to protect its citizens’ health and safety and critical infrastructure from potential hazards arising from climate change. 

Bratislava City Assessment Report


Greater Manchester in the north of England, home to 2.7 million people and covering an area of 1,277km2, was at the heart of the industrial revolution. Its administrative structures and history of collaboration with research institutions provide a supportive context for the city’s adaptation aims, which are to understand and address changing climate events that could threaten its path towards sustainable economic growth and social wellbeing. 

Greater Manchester City Assessment Report

Greater Manchester Baseline Assessment

Climate Change Risk Assessment of Greater Manchester’s Critical Infrastructure

Climate Change Impact Chains: A Greater Manchester Case Study

Assessing and responding to flood risk: a study of Greater Manchester’s transport infrastructure


The French capital is one of Europe’s largest cities with a population of 2.24 million (2012) in the city and 10.54 million (2012) in the wider Île-de-France region, one of the most economically stable regions in France and indeed Europe. Paris’ adaptation goals strive to anticipate and prepare the city for extreme weather events while promoting urban agriculture, strengthening urban biodiversity and improving thermal comfort for its citizens. 

Paris City Assessment Report

Local research institutions

Each of the cities is accompanied in the testing by a local consultancy or university that is also one of the project partners: School of Engineering of the City of Paris (EIVP), the University of Manchester, Comenius University of Bratislava, Tecnalia and the Basque Centre for Climate Change. This partnership will allow researchers to closely study and collaborate with the city partners, co-creating practical and immediately-applicable tools and materials.